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This document describes the REST API exposed to access Couchbase
resources
This document describes the REST API exposed to access Couchbase

What it doesn't describe:

* auth scheme, on this step you might only protect your API endpoint using nginx built-in means
* expiration handling. in Couchbase database it is possible to associate with the key expiration time. This feature will be exposed later
using nginx built-in means

There are several terms we are using while describing this API.

|| Term || Definition||
| mount point | The part of URI which where couchbase nginx module connected |
| document | | Arbitrary JSON or BLOB value. It could be referenced by its ID |
| bucket | The logical storage, which contains the documents. Like *database* in SQL world, or *collection* in mongodb |

Lets assume we have a bucket named {{wonderland}}.
h2. Configuration and URIs

The Couchbase API could be mount to any endpoint in your application,
and during configuration the bucket name and credentials should be
specified like this:

{code:none}
server {
location /wonderland/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland;
}
...
}
{code}

The config section above tell nginx to use {{/wonderland/}} mount
point to expose Couchbase API.

By default only Document API will be mounted, i.e. only CRUD
operations can be executed there. Because in Couchbase itself both
Document and Views APIs lives in completely different namespaces, the
nginx module also keeps them separate. The example below will mount
views and the documents into the common root.

{code:none}
server {
location /wonderland/docs/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland;
}
location /wonderland/views/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland views=true;
}
...
}
{code}

The connection configuration could be shared amound the locations
using upstream

{code:none}
upstream couchbase {
couchbase_server example.com:8091;
couchbase_server example.org;
couchbase_bucket wonderland;
}

server {
location /wonderland/docs/ {
couchbase_pass couchbase;
}
location /wonderland/views/ {
couchbase_pass views=true;
}
...
}
{code}

h2. Document CRUD

This section shows how to perform simple Create, Retrieve, Update and Delete operations
The module maps basic data operations to HTTP methods. The table below
assumes that the bucket mount to {{/storage}} location:

|| Couchbase operation || HTTP method || Comments ||
| get "foo" | GET /storage/foo | |
| add "foo" "bar" | POST /storage/foo | document goes in request's body, fails if ID exists already |
| | POST /storage | the same as above, but will generate ID |
| set "foo" "bar" | PUT /storage/foo | document goes in request's body |
| delete "foo" | DELETE /storage/foo | |

Apart from HTTP methods, it is possible to use arguments in query
string, to specify the command. To do so, the name of the parameter
must be specified in the config:

{code:none}
server {
location /wonderland/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland;
set $couchbase_cmd $arg_cmd
set $couchbase_exptime $arg_exptime;
}
...
}
{code}

The snippet above will translate this URI {{/storage/foo?cmd=replace&exptime=40}}
to the {{replace "foo" ...}} command with expiration of 40 seconds. In
the same way can be controller ID, value, flags and expiration time.

The rest of the section demonstrates various example of usage the API,
including optimistic locking with CAS. It assumes the following config:

{code:none}
server {
location /wonderland/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland;
add_header ETag $couchbase_cas;
}
...
}
{code}

Create document in the bucket
{code:none}
{"name":"Alice","species":"human"}
< 201
< ETag: "f5b8da2cf1560000" 10952782243130507264
< Location: http://couchbasenginx.apiary.io/wonderland/0a4683e4b4b161f505d0c2ae0c3a1abf
{code}

You can also specify ID with POST request if you need to *create* the document with given ID.
document with given ID.
{code:none}
POST /wonderland/alice
{"name":"Alice","species":"human"}
< 201
< ETag: "f5b8da2cf1570000" 10952782243130507265
< Location: http://couchbasenginx.apiary.io/wonderland/alice
{code}

Note that when you are using POST request, the server is always supposed to create the new document. This means that you will get an error if the document already exists.
supposed to create the new document. This means that you will get an
error if the document already exists.
{code:none}
POST /wonderland/foobar
{"name":"Write Rabbit","species":"rabbit"}
< 204
< ETag: "3d24e52cf1570000" 10952782243130507266
< Location: http://couchbasenginx.apiary.io/wonderland/white-rabbit
{code}

You can also specify *If-Match* header and the server will perform optimistic lock before updating. This operation might fail *412 Precondition Failed*
optimistic lock before updating. This operation might fail *412
Precondition Failed*
{code:none}
PUT /wonderland/duchess
{code}

If the document being updated doesn't exist, you will get *404 Not Found* error
Found* error
{code:none}
PUT /wonderland/sheep
DELETE /wonderland/caterpillar
< 204
< ETag: "7f463c2df1570000" 10952782243130507267
{code}


You can also specify *If-Match* header if you need to ensure you are removing know version of the document.
removing know version of the document.
{code:none}
DELETE /wonderland/bill-the-lizard


If the document being removed doesn't exist, you will get *404 Not Found* error
Found* error
{code:none}
DELETE /wonderland/jabberwock
< Content-Type: application/json
< Content-Length: 36
< ETag: "5d45c301fc570000" 10952782243130507268
{"name":"Hatter","species":"human"}
{code}

In case when the given document ID isn't exist in the bucket you will get *404 Not Found*
get *404 Not Found*
{code:none}
GET /wonderland/red-queen
< 200
< Content-Type: application/json
< ETag: "55c3a92df1570000" 10952782243130507269
{code}

Each operation is carry ETag, which internally is CAS value. The ETag value can be used in the conditional requests with *If-Match*, *If-None-Match*. See examples of *If-Match* above.
value can be used in the conditional requests with *If-Match*,
*If-None-Match*. See examples of *If-Match* above.

Check if the key has been modified (in this case the server responds that it wasn't modified):
that it wasn't modified):
{code:none}
HEAD /wonderland/dormouse
> If-None-Match: "3f5b792df1570000"
< If-None-Match: 10952782243130507269
< 304
{code}


h2. Couchbase Views

This section shows more advanced server feature: View indexes

One of the features of the Couchbase is ability to build efficient indexes leveraging Map/Reduce. They are called Views and you can define them on Admin Console UI.
indexes leveraging Map/Reduce. They are called Views and you can
define them on Admin Console UI.

This module allows you to query your views proxying them to Couchbase. All arguments will be transparently passed to Couchbase and the result will be streamed back.
The module allows you to query your views proxying them to Couchbase.
All arguments will be transparently passed to Couchbase and the result
will be streamed back.

For example we have a view *all* defined in the design document *characters*. It is simple map which will just emit all known characters (without any reduce function):
As mentioned above, the view endpoint should be mount separately

{code:none}
server {
location /wonderland/views/ {
couchbase_pass example.com:8091,example.org bucket=wonderland views=true;
}
...
}
{code}

For example we have a view *all* defined in the design document
*characters*. It is simple map which will just emit all known
characters (without any reduce function):

{code:javascript}
function (doc, meta) {
emit(meta.id, null);
emit(meta.id);
}
{code}

The result will look like (note: when *id* isn't accessible like for reduced views, the *meta* will be missing too)
The result will look like
{code:none}
GET /wonderland/views/_design/characters/_view/all
< 200
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: application/json
{"total_rows":20,"rows":[
{"id":"alice","key":"alice","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"f5b8da2cf1570000"}}, {"id":"alice","key":"alice","value":null},
{"id":"bill-the-lizard","key":"bill-the-lizard","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"accb302df1570000"}}, {"id":"bill-the-lizard","key":"bill-the-lizard","value":null},
{"id":"caterpillar","key":"caterpillar","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"7f463c2df1570000"}}, {"id":"caterpillar","key":"caterpillar","value":null},
{"id":"cheshire-cat","key":"cheshire-cat","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"5b99582df1570000"}}, {"id":"cheshire-cat","key":"cheshire-cat","value":null},
{"id":"dodo","key":"dodo","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"2fe2ed2cf1570000"}}, {"id":"dodo","key":"dodo","value":null},
{"id":"dormouse","key":"dormouse","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"3f5b792df1570000"}}, {"id":"dormouse","key":"dormouse","value":null},
{"id":"duchess","key":"duchess","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"a8bc492df1570000"}}, {"id":"duchess","key":"duchess","value":null},
{"id":"duck","key":"duck","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"e076132df1570000"}}, {"id":"duck","key":"duck","value":null},
{"id":"eaglet","key":"eaglet","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"b9bd062df1570000"}}, {"id":"eaglet","key":"eaglet","value":null},
{"id":"gryphon","key":"gryphon","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"55c3a92df1570000"}}, {"id":"gryphon","key":"gryphon","value":null},
{"id":"hatter","key":"hatter","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"5d45c301fc570000"}}, {"id":"hatter","key":"hatter","value":null},
{"id":"king-of-hearts","key":"king-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"4e1c9f2df1570000"}}, {"id":"king-of-hearts","key":"king-of-hearts","value":null},
{"id":"knave-of-hearts","key":"knave-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"43fa922df1570000"}}, {"id":"knave-of-hearts","key":"knave-of-hearts","value":null},
{"id":"lory","key":"lory","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"01f6fa2cf1570000"}}, {"id":"lory","key":"lory","value":null},
{"id":"march-hare","key":"march-hare","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"08f6642df1570000"}}, {"id":"march-hare","key":"march-hare","value":null},
{"id":"mock-turtle","key":"mock-turtle","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"11a8b52df1570000"}}, {"id":"mock-turtle","key":"mock-turtle","value":null},
{"id":"mouse","key":"mouse","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"fa38ea2cf1570000"}}, {"id":"mouse","key":"mouse","value":null},
{"id":"pat","key":"pat","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"8bd71f2df1570000"}}, {"id":"pat","key":"pat","value":null},
{"id":"queen-of-hearts","key":"queen-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"f72c862df1570000"}}, {"id":"queen-of-hearts","key":"queen-of-hearts","value":null},
{"id":"white-rabbit","key":"white-rabbit","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"3d24e52cf1570000"}}, {"id":"white-rabbit","key":"white-rabbit","value":null}
]
}
{code}

You can pass the any of supported query parameters, like
*include_docs=true* for example (note that {{rev}} field replaced with
{{etag}}:
You can pass the any of supported query parameters, like *include_docs=true* for example:
{code:none}
GET /wonderland/views/_design/characters/_view/all?include_docs=true
< 200
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: application/json
{"total_rows":20,"rows":[
{"id":"alice","key":"alice","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"f5b8da2cf1570000"},"json":{"name":"Alice","species":"human"}},
{"id":"bill-the-lizard","key":"bill-the-lizard","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"accb302df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Bill the Lizard","species":"lizard"}},
{"id":"caterpillar","key":"caterpillar","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"7f463c2df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Caterpillar","species":"caterpillar"}},
{"id":"cheshire-cat","key":"cheshire-cat","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"5b99582df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Cheshire Cat","species":"cat"}},
{"id":"dodo","key":"dodo","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"2fe2ed2cf1570000"},"json":{"name":"Dodo","species":"bird"}},
{"id":"dormouse","key":"dormouse","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"3f5b792df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Dormouse","species":"dormouse"}},
{"id":"duchess","key":"duchess","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"a8bc492df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Duchess","species":"human"}},
{"id":"duck","key":"duck","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"e076132df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Duck","species":"bird"}},
{"id":"eaglet","key":"eaglet","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"b9bd062df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Eaglet","species":"bird"}},
{"id":"gryphon","key":"gryphon","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"55c3a92df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Gryphon","species":"gryphon"}},
{"id":"hatter","key":"hatter","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"5d45c301fc570000"},"json":"foo"},
{"id":"king-of-hearts","key":"king-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"4e1c9f2df1570000"},"json":{"name":"King of Hearts","species":"card"}},
{"id":"knave-of-hearts","key":"knave-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"43fa922df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Knave of Hearts","species":"card"}},
{"id":"lory","key":"lory","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"01f6fa2cf1570000"},"json":{"name":"Lory","species":"bird"}},
{"id":"march-hare","key":"march-hare","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"08f6642df1570000"},"json":{"name":"March Hare","species":"hare"}},
{"id":"mock-turtle","key":"mock-turtle","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"11a8b52df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Mock Turtle","species":"turtle"}},
{"id":"mouse","key":"mouse","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"fa38ea2cf1570000"},"json":{"name":"Mouse","species":"mouse"}},
{"id":"pat","key":"pat","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"8bd71f2df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Pat","species":"pig"}},
{"id":"queen-of-hearts","key":"queen-of-hearts","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"f72c862df1570000"},"json":{"name":"Queen of Hearts","species":"card"}},
{"id":"white-rabbit","key":"white-rabbit","value":null,"meta":{"etag":"3d24e52cf1570000"},"json":{"name":"White Rabbit","species":"rabbit"}}
{"id":"alice","key":"alice","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"alice","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":88499348547108864},"json":{"name":"Alice","species":"human"}}},
{"id":"bill-the-lizard","key":"bill-the-lizard","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"bill-the-lizard","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":12227673967682453504},"json":{"name":"BilltheLizard","species":"lizard"}}},
{"id":"caterpillar","key":"caterpillar","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"caterpillar","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":7907600423173816320},"json":{"name":"Caterpillar","species":"caterpillar"}}},
{"id":"cheshire-cat","key":"cheshire-cat","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"cheshire-cat","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":15887700786432507904},"json":{"name":"CheshireCat","species":"cat"}}},
{"id":"dodo","key":"dodo","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"dodo","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":14764617828380246016},"json":{"name":"Dodo","species":"bird"}}},
{"id":"dormouse","key":"dormouse","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"dormouse","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":4027757040775528448},"json":{"name":"Dormouse","species":"dormouse"}}},
{"id":"duchess","key":"duchess","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"duchess","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":17543907245979402240},"json":{"name":"Duchess","species":"human"}}},
{"id":"duck","key":"duck","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"duck","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":13461959332744724480},"json":{"name":"Duck","species":"bird"}}},
{"id":"eaglet","key":"eaglet","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"eaglet","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":8572459711327174656},"json":{"name":"Eaglet","species":"bird"}}},
{"id":"gryphon","key":"gryphon","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"gryphon","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":14715372901595414528},"json":{"name":"Gryphon","species":"gryphon"}}},
{"id":"hatter","key":"hatter","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"hatter","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":3615690869010661376},"json":{"name":"Hatter","species":"human"}}},
{"id":"king-of-hearts","key":"king-of-hearts","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"king-of-hearts","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":6164167507172196352},"json":{"name":"KingofHearts","species":"card"}}},
{"id":"knave-of-hearts","key":"knave-of-hearts","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"knave-of-hearts","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":205344449230864384},"json":{"name":"KnaveofHearts","species":"card"}}},
{"id":"lory","key":"lory","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"lory","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":13830705845886844928},"json":{"name":"Lory","species":"bird"}}},
{"id":"march-hare","key":"march-hare","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"march-hare","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":14847959710254039040},"json":{"name":"MarchHare","species":"hare"}}},
{"id":"mock-turtle","key":"mock-turtle","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"mock-turtle","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":211262020811554816},"json":{"name":"MockTurtle","species":"turtle"}}},
{"id":"mouse","key":"mouse","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"mouse","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":7144275470706606080},"json":{"name":"Mouse","species":"mouse"}}},
{"id":"pat","key":"pat","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"pat","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":89110677012152320},"json":{"name":"Pat","species":"pig"}}},
{"id":"queen-of-hearts","key":"queen-of-hearts","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"queen-of-hearts","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":8409231712625688576},"json":{"name":"QueenofHearts","species":"card"}}},
{"id":"white-rabbit","key":"white-rabbit","value":null,"doc":{"meta":{"id":"white-rabbit","expiration":0,"flags":0,"etag":14777043409285742592},"json":{"name":"WhiteRabbit","species":"rabbit"}}}
]
}