Geospatial support was introduced as an experimental feature in Couchbase Server 2.0. This feature is currently unsupported and is provided only for the purposes of demonstration and testing.
GeoCouch adds two-dimensional spatial index support to Couchbase. Spatial support enables you to record geometry data into the bucket and then perform queries which return information based on whether the recorded geometries existing within a given two-dimensional range such as a bounding box. This can be used in spatial queries and in particular geolocationary queries where you want to find entries based on your location or region.
The GeoCouch support is provided through updated index support and modifications to the view engine to provide advanced geospatial queries.