Three trends disrupting the database status quo
Interactive applications have changed dramatically over the last 15 years, and so have the data management needs of those apps. Today, three interrelated megatrends – Big Data, Big Users, and Cloud Computing – are driving the adoption of NoSQL technology. And NoSQL is increasingly considered a viable alternative to relational databases, especially as more organizations recognize that operating at scale is better achieved on clusters of standard, commodity servers, and a schema-less data model is often better for the variety and type of data captured and processed today.
Not that long ago, 1,000 daily users of an application was a lot and 10,000 was an extreme case. Today, with the growth in global Internet use, the increased number of hours users spend online, and the growing popularity of smartphones and tablets, it's not uncommon for apps to have millions of users a day.
Supporting large numbers of concurrent users is important but, because app usage requirements are hard to predict, it’s just as important to dynamically support rapidly growing (or shrinking) numbers of concurrent users:
- A newly launched app can go viral, growing from zero to a million users overnight – literally.
- Some users are active frequently, while others use an app a few times, never to return.
- Seasonal swings like those around Christmas or Valentine’s Day create spikes for short periods.
The large numbers of users combined with the dynamic nature of usage patterns is driving the need for more easily scalable database technology. With relational technologies, many application developers find it difficult, or even impossible, to get the dynamic scalability and level of scale they need while also maintaining the performance users demand. Many are turning to NoSQL for help.
Data is becoming easier to capture and access through third parties such as Facebook, D&B, and others. Personal user information, geo location data, social graphs, user-generated content, machine logging data, and sensor-generated data are just a few examples of the ever-expanding array of data being captured. It’s not surprising that developers want to enrich existing applications and create new ones made possible by it. And the use of the data is rapidly changing the nature of communication, shopping, advertising, entertainment, and relationship management. Apps that don’t leverage it quickly will quickly fall behind.
Developers want a very flexible database that easily accommodates new data types and isn’t disrupted by content structure changes from third-party data providers. Much of the new data is unstructured and semi-structured, so developers also need a database that is capable of efficiently storing it. Unfortunately, the rigidly defined, schema-based approach used by relational databases makes it impossible to quickly incorporate new types of data, and is a poor fit for unstructured and semi-structured data. NoSQL provides a data model that maps better to these needs.
Today, most new applications (both consumer and business) use a three-tier Internet architecture, run in a public or private cloud, and support large numbers of users.
In the three-tier architecture, applications are accessed through a web browser or mobile app that is connected to the Internet. In the cloud, a load balancer directs the incoming traffic to a scale-out tier of web/application servers that process the logic of the application. The scale-out architecture at the web/application tier works beautifully. For every 10,000 (or however many) new concurrent users, you simply add another commodity server to the web application tier to absorb the load.
At the database tier, relational databases were originally the popular choice. Their use was increasingly problematic however, because they are a centralized, share-everything technology that scales up rather than out. This made them a poor fit for applications that require easy and dynamic scalability. NoSQL databases have been built from the ground up to be distributed, scale-out technologies and therefore fit better with the highly distributed nature of the three-tier Internet architecture.
Why are developers considering NoSQL?
More flexible data model
Relational and NoSQL data models are very different. The relational model takes data and separates it into many interrelated tables that contain rows and columns. Tables reference each other through foreign keys that are stored in columns as well. When looking up data, the desired information needs to be collected from many tables (often hundreds in today’s enterprise applications) and combined before it can be provided to the application. Similarly, when writing data, the write needs to be coordinated and performed on many tables.
NoSQL databases have a very different model. For example, a document-oriented NoSQL database takes the data you want to store and aggregates it into documents using the JSON format. Each JSON document can be thought of as an object to be used by your application. A JSON document might, for example, take all the data stored in a row that spans 20 tables of a relational database and aggregate it into a single document/object. Aggregating this information may lead to duplication of information, but since storage is no longer cost prohibitive, the resulting data model flexibility, ease of efficiently distributing the resulting documents and read and write performance improvements make it an easy trade-off for web-based applications.
Another major difference is that relational technologies have rigid schemas while NoSQL models are schemaless. Relational technology requires strict definition of a schema prior to storing any data into a database. Changing the schema once data is inserted is a big deal, extremely disruptive and frequently avoided – the exact opposite of the behavior desired in the Big Data era, where application developers need to constantly – and rapidly – incorporate new types of data to enrich their apps.
In comparison, document databases are schemaless, allowing you to freely add fields to JSON documents without having to first define changes. The format of the data being inserted can be changed at any time, without application disruption.
Scalability and performance advantages
To deal with the increase in concurrent users (Big Users) and the amount of data (Big Data), applications and their underlying databases need to scale using one of two choices: scale up or scale out. Scaling up implies a centralized approach that relies on bigger and bigger servers. Scaling out implies a distributed approach that leverages many standard, commodity physical or virtual servers.
Scale up with relational technology: limitations at the database tier
At the web/application tier of the three-tier Internet architecture, a scale out approach has been the default for many years and worked extremely well. As more people use an application, more commodity servers are added to the web/application tier, performance is maintained by distributing load across an increased number of servers, and the cost scales linearly with the number of users.
Prior to NoSQL databases, the default scaling approach at the database tier was to scale up. This was dictated by the fundamentally centralized, shared-everything architecture of relational database technology. To support more concurrent users and/or store more data, you need a bigger and bigger server with more CPUs, more memory, and more disk storage to keep all the tables. Big servers tend to be highly complex, proprietary, and disproportionately expensive, unlike the low-cost, commodity hardware typically used so effectively at the web/application server tier.
Scale out with NoSQL technology at the database tier
NoSQL databases were developed from the ground up to be distributed, scale out databases. They use a cluster of standard, physical or virtual servers to store data and support database operations. To scale, additional servers are joined to the cluster and the data and database operations are spread across the larger cluster. Since commodity servers are expected to fail from time-to-time, NoSQL databases are built to tolerate and recover from such failure making them highly resilient.
NoSQL databases provide a much easier, linear approach to database scaling. If 10,000 new users start using your application, simply add another database server to your cluster. Add ten thousand more users and add another server. There’s no need to modify the application as you scale since the application always sees a single (distributed) database.
At scale, a distributed scale out approach also usually ends up being cheaper than the scale up alternative. This is a consequence of large, complex, fault tolerant servers being expensive to design, build and support. Licensing costs of commercial relational databases can also be prohibitive because they are priced with a single server in mind. NoSQL databases on the other hand are generally open source, priced to operate on a cluster of servers, and relatively inexpensive.
While implementations differ, NoSQL databases share some characteristics with respect to scaling and performance:
- Auto-sharding – A NoSQL database automatically spreads data across servers, without requiring applications to participate. Servers can be added or removed from the data layer without application downtime, with data (and I/O) automatically spread across the servers. Most NoSQL databases also support data replication, storing multiple copies of data across the cluster, and even across data centers, to ensure high availability and support disaster recovery. A properly managed NoSQL database system should never need to be taken offline, for any reason, supporting 24x365 continuous operation of applications.
- Distributed query support – “Sharding” a relational database can reduce, or eliminate in certain cases, the ability to perform complex data queries. NoSQL database systems retain their full query expressive power even when distributed across hundreds of servers.
- Integrated caching – To reduce latency and increase sustained data throughput, advanced NoSQL database technologies transparently cache data in system memory. This behavior is transparent to the application developer and the operations team, compared to relational technology where a caching tier is usually a separate infrastructure tier that must be developed to, deployed on separate servers, and explicitly managed by the ops team.